Saturday, March 14, 2020
Few scholars of economics describe Korean economic success as Ã¢â¬Å"The miracle on the Han.Ã¢â¬ Korean economic success from the 1960s to 1980s is contributed by a number of international, social, political, and cultural factors. KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic transformation did not happen overnight or restricted to just few ingredients. In my opinion these factors were interrelated in many ways. Not one factor by itself could be responsible for such a complicated task. Influences of international powers have shaped Korean economy in many ways. Japan and United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ influence has been extraordinary compared to others. Japanese colonialism unmistakably laid foundations for transformation to modern economy of Korea. Under Japanese rule, Korea changed from agricultural oriented society to a modern industrialized nation. The colonial government, although its intentions were geared for their gains, helped establish railroads, textile factories, power plants, and others. United Sta tes plays a crucial role for war-devastated Korea in the 1950s. U.S. aided more than any nation through military and economic assistance. Its assistance laid foundations for modern economy that present Korea built itself on. But international help alone cannot be held responsible for economic success of Korea. A dynamic class of entrepreneurs and a class of dependable and efficient industrial workers that were able to assimilate and change with global economic trends were also essential. Without them foreign capital and technology into the economy is likely to be a wasted effort (Eckert et al., 1990, p. 400). The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s low standard of living and low pay invited and promoted foreign investments. Although Korea provided cheap labor and quality products it would not have been complete without governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s strong hold on policies. Authoritarian rule of General Part era might not be approved by most democratic nations at the time but for Korea, it seemed necessary. With... Free Essays on History Of Korean Economy Free Essays on History Of Korean Economy Few scholars of economics describe Korean economic success as Ã¢â¬Å"The miracle on the Han.Ã¢â¬ Korean economic success from the 1960s to 1980s is contributed by a number of international, social, political, and cultural factors. KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic transformation did not happen overnight or restricted to just few ingredients. In my opinion these factors were interrelated in many ways. Not one factor by itself could be responsible for such a complicated task. Influences of international powers have shaped Korean economy in many ways. Japan and United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ influence has been extraordinary compared to others. Japanese colonialism unmistakably laid foundations for transformation to modern economy of Korea. Under Japanese rule, Korea changed from agricultural oriented society to a modern industrialized nation. The colonial government, although its intentions were geared for their gains, helped establish railroads, textile factories, power plants, and others. United Sta tes plays a crucial role for war-devastated Korea in the 1950s. U.S. aided more than any nation through military and economic assistance. Its assistance laid foundations for modern economy that present Korea built itself on. But international help alone cannot be held responsible for economic success of Korea. A dynamic class of entrepreneurs and a class of dependable and efficient industrial workers that were able to assimilate and change with global economic trends were also essential. Without them foreign capital and technology into the economy is likely to be a wasted effort (Eckert et al., 1990, p. 400). The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s low standard of living and low pay invited and promoted foreign investments. Although Korea provided cheap labor and quality products it would not have been complete without governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s strong hold on policies. Authoritarian rule of General Part era might not be approved by most democratic nations at the time but for Korea, it seemed necessary. With...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Technology and culture class - Essay Example Still, Ullman feels that man is not able to live without computers, and expresses her love for the programmerÃ¢â¬â¢s world. Bill Joy, in his book, writes that technology has endangered human species though the introduction of robotics, genetic engineering, and nanotechnology. Like Ullman, Joy has also stated the repercussions of letting machines do all the work, since it will lead to humans not doing any work in future, and all decisions will be made by machines. This brings human beings at mercy of machines. He admits that since machine made decisions are and will continue to be better that human decisions, man will continue to rely on machines, which is fatal for manÃ¢â¬â¢s independence in the long run. So, we see that both Ullman and Joy have talked about repercussions of computers, while admitting to their usefulness at the same time; but unlike Ullman, Joy has quoted works of famous people to support his argument, as he thinks that his argument relates to a minority of
Monday, February 10, 2020
Final project - PowerPoint Presentation Example al structure is the separation or combination of missions or activities consisting of speculations and anecdote as to the most effective way of organizing the health agencies and the environment in terms of the outcomes (Sinclair, & Whitford, 2013). There are three general ways of identifying and categorizing health agency structures in every state. First, there is the combined health and environmental agency model, where the agency is at the cabinet level, with one policy leader overseeing both environmental and health functions. Second, there is an independent health agency located at the cabinet level with a policy leader reporting to the governor directly. Third is the health super agency model which additional functions. For a public health organization, this may include healthcare funding. The enforcement of law is the primary means by which the government creates conditions for safer and healthier lives for all people. The law is responsible for creation of missions for public health officials, assignment of their functions and exercises manner of exercising their power. The law also influences norms for healthy behavior, identify and respond to threats relating to health and setting health standards. The public health ethics are concerned with the ethical dimensions of professionalism and the moral trust bestowed on public health professionals by the society (Gostin, 2010). Resources like funding will be required to embrace the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of population health. To achieve the population health goals, the Accountable Care Organizations (ACA) will need to identify the financial resources required. The demonstration grants provided may help to fund the fee-for-service structure currently used but it is barely enough to sustain it. Therefore, the nonprofit hospitals have to provide support for the community programs. With passage of the ACA, the U.S. has had to result to improving the health careÃ¢â¬â¢s quality while decreasing the costs
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Critically evaluate an assessment process Essay The assessment system being evaluated is Competency Based Training (CBT). This is used by myself and my colleagues in the Automotive Trade section. This report will include the processes implemented by my section, and what issues are present that impact on how the assessment is conducted. A critique along with personal recommendations that may enhance the process will also be included. Assessment can be defined as the process of collecting evidence and making judgments on whether competency has been achieved, or whether specific skills and knowledge have been achieved that will lead to the attainment of competence. This appears to be a simple credo although all too often seems to fail either the candidate or the industry that represents them. To trace the events leading up to assessment, we must first look at the source. Industry identifies a need in the workforce and, in conjunction with Australian National Training Authority (ANTA), they develop a training package which may be described as the bare bones of what is required to be achieved. The automotive sector adheres to the training package AUR99. From this TAFE unpacks the training package in which staff can retrieve a translation in the form of units of competency contained in the syllabus for a particular module. This is available to staff on the Course Information Documents Online (CIDO) website. The units of competency can be further broken down into elements of competency. These elements can be translated into further detail through the performance criteria from which the learning outcomes are derived. An example of a module being taught in Automotive is called Electrical system minor repairs. This module addresses the unit of competency AUR18708A retrieved from the National Training Information Service (NTIS). This module is undertaken by stage one auto-electricians, light vehicle mechanics, and heavy vehicle mechanics. . The module purpose is to provide these trainees and apprentices the knowledge and skills to carry out minor repairs on automotive electrical circuits and systems. In order to assess a candidate effectively, there are basic principles of assessment that must be adhered to. This report will address and evaluate the above module, and define the principles as outlined below along with observed critiques. Validity is a process ensuring that the assessment task actually assesses the candidate in the way in which it was designed to. The module is valid in the assessment as it addresses the outcomes and the learners must successfully complete theory and practical tasks. There is a question of age in the resources used in the section, but as technology in this area has changed little, I believe industry validity is current. Having said this, the inclusion of practical assessments creates its own problems, availability of enough resources, OHS etc. Because of the financial constraints of having fifteen cars and equipment available at the one time, it is normal to break the class into three groups, with one group doing a theory test in the classroom, another doing one practical task in one part of the workshop and the last group doing another practical in another part of the workshop. Apart from the obvious OHS issues, there is also the question of how valid an assessment can be if the students doing the theory can copy from each other while it is impossible for the assessor to view the whole of the practical task o f all ten people in the workshop. Reliability. This principle refers to the consistency of an assessment outcome regardless of varying locations, time and assessors. Although the definition is idealistic, this principle seems to be lacking in many colleges. Due to my experience having taught this module in the light vehicle and auto-electrical sections, and having viewed the heavy vehicle assessments, it is notable that, taking away the human element, each section constructs its own test questions and practical resources without consulting each other, even though at my college these three sections are next door to each other. Therefore, the outcomes to these assessments are unreliable. Flexibility allows candidates to negotiate time and place with their assessorÃ and should make allowances for reasonable adjustment in the case of possible obstacles such as disability or literacy issues which may or may not inhibit the ability for a candidate to achieve a competency. Upon teaching this module among other modules, I have noticed that although The government prides itself on flexibility it does not necessarily occur to a great extent in the automotive trades. If a practical task is being assessed and a candidates level of literacy could possibly hinder their successful completion of this competency, the education department does have provision for translators or scribes, but to my knowledge, no student is able to negotiate time and place for their assessment to take place when more suitable for them. Fairness is a process to ensure that no one is disadvantaged during assessment. The candidates must be fully informed about assessment opportunities and be confident that there are no hidden agendas. The assessment must be accessible to all eligible students regardless of age, gender, disability, race, social background, language or geographic location. I believe no one is specifically disadvantaged in the above categories, except for location.. Although students are forewarned when an assessment is taking place, if a student that is traveling from far away experiences difficulties during this trip due to traffic etc, there is no flexibility with regards to starting later for instance. The next time they are able to sit this assessment may be up to six months away. Authenticity refers to the fact that the evidence used to make an assessment is the students own product or performance. This is possible in this module, and indeed most of the automotive modules, as there is rarely homework or projects for the students to complete outside college grounds, therefore students should be constantly observed by their teacher whether in a quiet room for a theory exam or workshop practical observation. In CBT, there are four types of assessments to be used. They are as follows; Diagnostic. This type of assessment is used to assist in identifying educational or training needs and determine if a candidate is ready to undertake the desired course. This would include a numeracy, literacy and language test, often called a screen test. This type of testing does occur at the beginning of the trade course certificate III, but not at the beginning of each module. If a student is identified as requiring extra assistance in these areas, we will provide tutorial support. Formative assessment is done during the learning process and provides feedback about the students progress towards to competency. Although I have seen no official policy in place for formative assessments, it is up to the teacher to provide this in good faith. I personally give students formative assessments to keep them steered in the right direction. Summative assessment is more formal and conducted at the end of a module to determine whether the candidate has achieved their outcomes to the competency successfully. This process is always undertaken in my section at work. Holistic assessment brings together the three domains of learning (cognitive, affect and psychomotor), with an attempt to include technical hands-on skills, problem solving and ethical attitudes in the assessment event. This is normally more complex and requires more than simply one assessment tool. It ideally requires various formats in the shape of written tests, oral questioning, and direct visual evidence by an assessor. I would once again question whether this occurs due to financial constraints as all of the students assessment tasks, both practical and theoretical are marked, but individual direct evidence is costly and time consuming. One fundamental flaw between the nationally endorsed training package from ANTA and the translated syllabus from CIDO is the issue of grading within a competency-based assessment, which I believe is a contentious issue. The words competency-based infer that the candidate should be judged as either competent or not yet competent. This does not leave room for the high achievers as these people are being encouraged, through lack of recognition, to only put in enough effort to be deemed competent. Most learners who have put a lot of effort into a piece of work often do not wish to simply see a satisfactory label on their results. The system is contradictory and unclear in this issue as it is modeled on CBT system but chooses to grade some modules, such as this one, and conduct other modules in an un-graded format as simply pass or fail. As most automotive trade tests are Category C, grade code 71, this allows the section to locally set and mark their own assessments. Grading is as follows; Distinction = 83 Credit = 70 Pass = 50 Fail 50 It interests me that 50% is the pass mark. What has determined this? Should it be 60% or 70%, or why not 40%. In most cases in my view, 50% seems way too low. Work Evidence Modules (WEMs) also play a part in the assessment as in the course of the students apprenticeship they must gather work evidence to be signed by their employer in order to validate that they have completed authentic practical tasks. I have seen flaws in this system as some employers are simply signing WEMs books enmasse without scrutiny as I haveÃ seen various trade tasks signed off in some apprentices books where I am well aware that their particular workshop does not undertake certain facets of the trade, thus leaving this system open to corruption. Students workbooks are also used in module assessments, which may total up to 50%. There is an inconsistency marking workbooks with some teachers giving half marks, and others having a black and white rule meaning all or nothing. This means that dependant on whose class an apprentice ends up in can decide on the level of his/her grade. Recommendations In the case of assessment validity, I would recommend that two staff be made available to team teach during assessment events in order to view all facets of each task. In the case of reliability where the same subject is taught across different trade sections, there should be policy in place for the exact same test paper to be used by all as an example as mechanics arent given a less challenging electric theory test than an auto electrician as is currently taking place in the autonomous climate. I recommend that there should be a change in local policy that students should have a negotiated assessment time and place within reason, once again, with a second staff member being available to supervise. Fairness could be further enhanced for the students who have to travel, but this issue can be appeased if coupled with the flexibility recommendation. In the grading debate, we must decide on which side of the fence we stand, whether it be CBT un-graded, or graded. I prefer grading students on their merit, because I believe some are more competent than others. Although, if we made a stance on one side of the fence and stuck to it, I would accept either graded or un-graded, but not both throughout the course. WEMs books should be eliminated, as I believe they will be in the not to distant future. They dont work, and we used to produce fine trades people in the past without them. With the above review and personal recommendations made as is apparent, there are flaws to our assessment processes, but this is part and parcel of being an educator. So long as we are reflective and continue to consult both industry and practitioners we will further fine tune our system in order to better serve future students which in this day and age is the customer. References Australian National Training Authority. (n.d.). Retrieved Aug 14, 2004, from http://www.anta.gov.au/ Certificate IV in assessment and workplace training. (2003). NSW., Australia: TAFE. CIDO. (n.d.). Retrieved Aug 14, 2004, from https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/cgi-forte/fortecgi.exe?servicename=CDOTemplateName=cdo_logon.html Everyones guide to assessment. (2004). (2nd ed.). Darlinghurst, NSW., Australia: TAFE and NSW DET. National Training Information Service. (n.d.). Retrieved Aug 14, 2004, from http://www.ntis.gov.au/ NCVER. (2002). Research at a Glance. Competency Based Training in Australia, pp. 159-166.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
How to Operate a Manual Transmission A vast majority of our population find operating a manual transmission, or stick shift, to be extremely difficult. However, in actuality all it takes is some serious practice and devotion to make driving a stick shift like second nature. For successful driving, the same steps must be followed each time the car is driven. The stick shift panel is typically located between the two front seats of the vehicle. The stick shift can be moved left to right and up and down for changing gears. The clutch pedal is usually found to the right of the brake pedal. Specifically, on a standard five speed, the gears are as follows: Neutral is located in the middle of the panel. From neutral, gears must be changed accordingly. First gear is found to the far upper left, and is used to get the car moving from a stopped position. Down left is second gear, used for speeds up to twenty-five miles per hour. Third gear is located upper middle of the panel, used for speeds from about twenty-five to forty miles per hour. Fourth gear is found at the lower middle and would be good for between forty and fifty miles per hour. Fifth gear is found to the far upper right, and is used for higher driving speeds such as on the freeway. Last but not least is reverse, which is to the far bottom right, used for backing up. These gears must be maneuvered the exact same way each time the automobile is driven. Undoubtedly, figuring out the timing of letting out the clutch and giving the car more gas can be the trickiest part of driving a stick shift. The clutch is found to the far right of the brake. When changing gears, the clutch must always be pushed to the floor with the left foot or immediately the car's gears will grind. The clutch must be slowly let out as more gas is given to the car. The timing of this process must be perfect to ensure a that the car will begin to slowly move forward. As for stopping, such as at a red light or a stop sign, begin by moving the gear shift to the neutral position.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
There are several process theories of motivation: The Vroom Expectancy Theory, the AdamsÃ¢â¬â¢ Equity Theory, the Needs-Goal-Setting Theory, and the Reinforcement Theory of Motivation. Here our centre of attention is on helping you make a clear-cut distinction between process and content. Basically, process theories of motivation focus on how workers needs influence their own behaviour. Here our attention goes beyond motivation, our focal point is on giving you a key conceptual tool to help you manage both the performance of your direct reports (management) and the performance of your entire organization (leadership). Ã¢â¬Å"ProcessÃ¢â¬ is how employees work together, as opposed to the what Ã¢â¬â the Ã¢â¬Å"content,Ã¢â¬ the task, the issue Ã¢â¬â they are working on. An example of Ã¢â¬Å"processÃ¢â¬ is the way in which people interact with each other during a meeting; on the contrary, an example of Ã¢â¬Å"contentÃ¢â¬ is the decision they make in that meeting. Process is hiring (the hiring processes that a company practices); content is the selected candidate that becomes the new employee. Process is the nature in which day-to-day performance conversations take place between the manager and her direct reports; content is what gets talked about, agreed upon, and actually understood. Process is the way in which people interact with each other in order to solve a problem; content is the actual solution to the problem. Most executives have the unconscious tendency to focus on content Ã¢â¬â which is great, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what they get paid for Ã¢â¬â but unfortunately most executives also have the unconscious tendency to forget about the process they are using. However, the quality of the Ã¢â¬Å"processÃ¢â¬ that is used (the type of meeting that is used to make a decision for example), has an impact on the quality of the resulting Ã¢â¬Å"contentÃ¢â¬ (if the meeting is poorly designed, the quality of the resulting decision is likely to be poorer, but if the meeting is well designed, the quality of the resulting decision is likely to be better). Again, the better the process used, the better the resulting content, and vice versa: The poorer the process used, the poorer the resulting content. Do the people in your company hate meetings because they spend too much time in them? The problem is not in the meetings themselves, but in the way your company runs those meetings. Does your company have several low performers? The problem is not in those poor people who perform below standards, but in your companyÃ¢â¬â¢s management practices. Is your company lagging behind its competition? The problem is not in those high performing organizations, but in the leadership skills of your companyÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders. The process by which a company is led and managed determines its long-term success.heori of Motivation A great company is successful in the long run not because of its great products or services, but because of the nature of its leadership and management processes. You can have the greatest product or service, but if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the appropriate management and leadership processes, your company wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get too far. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s that simple. The next time something doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t go as you wanted it to go, stop for a second, step back, get your focus off the content, and take a closer look at the process you are using. How can you improve the process that you are using?
Monday, January 6, 2020
Polylactic acid (PLA), a plastic substitute made from fermented plant starch (usually corn) is quickly becoming a popular alternative to traditional petroleum-based plastics. As more and more countries and states follow the lead of China, Ireland, South Africa, Uganda and San Francisco in banning plastic grocery bags responsible for so much so-called Ã¢â¬Å"white pollutionÃ¢â¬ around the world, PLA is poised to play a big role as a viable, biodegradable replacement. Proponents also tout the use of PLA, which is technically Ã¢â¬Å"carbon neutralÃ¢â¬ in that it comes from renewable, carbon-absorbing plants, as yet another way to reduce our emissions of greenhouse gases in a quickly warming world. PLA also will not emit toxic fumes when incinerated. However, there are still issues with the use of polylactic acid such as its slow rate of biodegradability, its inability to mix with other plastics in recycling, and its high use of genetically modified corn (though arguably the latter could be one of the good effects of PLA as it provides a good reason to alter crop yields with genetic splicing). The Cons of PLA: Biodegradation Rate and Recycling Critics say that PLA is far from a panacea for dealing with the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s plastic waste problem. For one thing, although PLA does biodegrade, it does so very slowly. According to Elizabeth Royte, writing in Smithsonian, PLA may well break down into its constituent parts (carbon dioxide and water) within three months in a Ã¢â¬Å"controlled composting environment,Ã¢â¬ that is, an industrial composting facility heated to 140 F and fed a steady diet of digestive microbes. It will take far longer in a compost bin, or in a landfill packed so tightly that no light and little oxygen are available to assist in the process. Indeed, analysts estimate that a PLA bottle could take anywhere from 100 to 1,000 years to decompose in a landfill. Another issue with PLA is that it must be kept separate when recycled, lest it contaminates the recycling stream; since PLA is plant-based, it needs to be disposed of in composting facilities, which points to another problem: There are currently a few hundred industrial-grade composting facilities across the United States. Finally, PLA is typically made of genetically modified corn, at least in the United States. The largest producer of PLA in the world is NatureWorks, a subsidiary of Cargill, which is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest provider of genetically modified corn seed. This is tricky because the future costs of genetic modification (and the associated pesticides) to the environment and human health are still largely unknown. Pros of PLA Over Plastics: Utility and Biodegradability Genetically modified foods may be a controversial issue, but when it comes to genetically spicing plants together to breed corn that yields more crops for industrial use has its major advantages. With the increasing demand for corn to make ethanol fuel, let alone PLA, itÃ¢â¬â¢s no wonder that Cargill and others have been tampering with genes to produce higher yields. At least harmful plastic isnt be used as frequently anymore! Many industries are using PLA because they are capable of biodegrading at a much faster rate than plastic while still offering the same level of sanitation and utility. Everything from plastic clamshells for food take-out to medical products can now be made from PLA, which drastically reduces the carbon footprint of these industries. While PLA has promise as an alternative to conventional plastic once the means of disposal are worked out, consumers might be better served by simply switching to reusable containers, from cloth bags, baskets, and backpacks for grocery shopping to safe, reusable (non-plastic) bottles for beverages.